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Diabetes is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. The insufficiency of conventional treatments to cope with this burden has coincided with a dramatic rise in the use of herbs. This has prompted calls for proof of their safety and efficacy. Ginseng is one of the most popular herbs. Whether the glycemic lowering effects we observed repeatedly with a single batch of American ginseng are reproducible is unknown. It is also unclear whether ginsenosides (steroidal glycosides), the principal active components, are mediators. To answer these questions, a series of acute, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical studies was conducted to assess the effect of increasing ginsenoside variability across ginseng source parameters of progressively greater ginsenoside variability (batch, preparation, variety, and species) on postprandial carbohydrate metabolism. A 75g-oral-glucose-tolerance-test (75g-OGTT) protocol was followed with ginseng administered 40min before the start of the test and blood drawn at -40, 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120min. In the first study, while our original efficacious batch of American ginseng lowered plasma glucose indices (P < 0.05), a second batch with a depressed ginsenoside profile including a low protopanaxadiol:protopanaxatriol-ginsenoside [PPD:PPT] ratio was ineffective. In the consolidated second and third studies, another species, Asian ginseng, with marked inversions in its ginsenoside profile (PPD:PPT < 1) had null and opposing effects on plasma glucose indices. In the fourth study, in which effects on plasma glucose and insulin regulation were assessed across the range of ginseng source parameters by comparing 8 of the most popular ginseng types, a third batch of American ginseng lowered, while Asian, wild-American, and Siberian ginsengs raised plasma glucose compared with placebo (P < 0.05). Stepwise-multiple-regression models assessed the PPD:PPT ratio as the sole albeit weak independent predictor (P < 0.05). Taken together, glycemic variability appeared secondary to variability in the ginsenoside profile, particularly the PPD:PPT ratio. To understand the implications, a meta-analysis assessed the coefficient-of-variation (CV) of ginsenosides across the same parameters of ginseng source. As the CV of ginsenosides was found to be as high as the experimental variability achieved in the clinical studies, it was concluded that the effects on postprandial glycemic regulation might be equally highly variable. A basis for standardization is needed.
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Differential effects of ginsenoside Rb1 and malonylginsenoside Rb1 on long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of rats. Author links open overlay panel. KazuhoAbe a Sung IgChoa IsaoKitagawab NobuyoshiNishiyamaa HiroshiSaitoa. (94) Get rights and by: Ginsenosides, the main active components of ginseng, have been reported to exert neuroprotective effects in the central nervous system. In this report, the effects of ginsenoside-Rd and -Rb2, two protopanaxadiols, and ginsenoside-Rg1 and -Re, two protopanaxatriols, on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-alpha (TNF-α) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated N9 microglial cells Cited by: Ethanol extraction preparation of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) and Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer): Differential effects on postprandial insulinemia in healthy individuals Author links open overlay panel Leanne R. De Souza a c Alexandra L. Jenkins a Elena Jovanovski a Dario Rahelić b Vladimir Vuksan a c dCited by: 8. Common side effects may include: diarrhea; insomnia; headache; rapid heartbeat; increased or decreased blood pressure; breast tenderness and vaginal bleeding.
Ginseng side effects. Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.. Although not all side effects are known, ginseng is thought to be likely safe for most people, when taken by mouth for a short period of time. The Rb1 constituents in Am. ginseng have calming effects on the central nervous system, yet are not fatigue-inducing but energizing in a restorative sense. Asian ginseng is thus more drying to the body, while American helps to generate fluids. Korean ginseng is known to be the "hottest" of the Asian types. Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng Meyer, has been used as a general tonic to promote longevity and enhance bodily functions against stress, fatigue, diseases, cancer and diabetes mellitus. Among various ginseng components, ginsenosides (also called ginseng saponins) exhibit anti-hypertension and cardio-protective effects. The literature on ginseng’s effect on blood pressure is generally inconsistent with robust evidence supporting both the reduction in blood pressure and not yielding significant effects or effects similar to placebo (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) root fractions: Differential effects on postprandial glycemia in healthy individuals.
Ethanol extraction preparation of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) and Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer): differential effects on postprandial insulinemia in healthy individuals J Ethnopharmacol. Jan 15; doi: / We found that ginsenoside metabolites showed a differential effect of PPT on I K s and KCNQ1 alone K + channels currents. Thus, we observed that PPT inhibited I K s and KCNQ1 alone K + channels currents in both concentration- and voltage-dependent manners, but the PPT blockade of the I K s current had an IC 50 value of ± μM, which was 2-fold less than that of KCNQ1 alone K + current. There were differential effects of all doses on other WM tasks which were maintained across the testing day. Choice reaction time accuracy and 'calmness' were significantly improved by mg. There were no changes in blood glucose levels. American ginseng grows in North America. It has a calming effect, making it useful for insomnia and stress relief. This herb will also improve memory, blood pressure, and cancer risk. Asian ginseng, which grows in Far East Asia, is more stimulating. People take it to enhance energy, cognitive function, and immunity.